В. Н. Брюханова Исследовательская деятельность


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Etiquette and eating habits

No society can survive or flourish unless its members accept rules governing food sharing and consumption. Mealtime manners, which govern the way food is eaten in the company of others, provide for giving and receiving small, vital, and constantly reiterated signs that these rules are in working order. Without them food would be hogged by the physically powerful, violence would frequently erupt during meals, civility in general would decline, and eventually society would break down altogether. Furthermore, the specific fashion in which a culture manages eating helps to express, identify, and dramatize that society’s ideals and aesthetic style. Civilized and considerate people the world over demand that meals shall be eaten with respect, not only for the food and the effort and good fortune it represents but also for the people in whose company it is eaten. Human beings normally eat in the company of others. The word “company” is derived from Latin, meaning “bread with,” and therefore “those who share food.” The act of sharing a meal becomes a symbol of every kind of relationship and of the acceptance of cultural values that may seem to have little to do with consuming nutrients. Since eating normally happens more than once a day, human beings turn meals into opportunities to learn and to practice “culture.” Politeness at meals provides daily exercise in making socially desirable norms “second nature” [7]. However, mealtime etiquette is not morality. It is convention, an agreement to behave, in the particular circumstances of mealtimes, as if one were virtuous. Like any convention it is liable to degenerate into a facade, which can be used as a barrier to protect power and class distinction

1.4.1. Taboo

Eating rules exist mainly to ensure that meals shall be shared peacefully, the reason being that such an outcome is far from inevitable. People have killed, chopped, and submitted to fire what they are eating together; they are often armed with knives and certainly with teeth, primary human weapons. They are hungry, each looking out for his or her own interests, and they are sitting at close quarters. They might also be consuming alcohol, which lowers inhibitions. Mealtime rules provide not only the safety but also the predictability that allows eaters to relax. Different societies have different ways of keeping violence out of the sacred eating space. In European and American cultures knives are on the table. Their blades are given rounded ends unless they are exceptionally competent “steak” knives. Rules insist on no pointing with knives, forks, or spoons. Diners should not impale their food on their knives to carry it to their mouths, or hold their knives in their fists (that is, too competently and therefore aggressively). They should direct their knives toward their plates with their forefingers, and they should lay down their knives with blades facing inward, not toward neighbors. Attempting to reduce the actual use of the knife, diners, when in doubt and if possible, use a fork or a spoon instead. North Americans traditionally cut their food then put aside their knives, blades facing in, and eat with their forks. Carving up a whole joint or a bird in front of the assembled company would be, in many societies, an unthinkably barbarous act. The Chinese and Japanese, for example, have banned knives from the table altogether. They cut up everything in advance, far away and out of sight. The eating implements provided are blunt wooden sticks. Mealtime manners usually work by keeping any thought of violence from occurring. Many myths, however, reveal the roots of the conventions by including a murder that is especially appalling because of its mealtime setting.

For human beings, who normally eat in a previously prepared and protected area, this heightened attention is applied to the behavior of their eating companions. Strange table manners or an affront to a visitor’s culturally formed expectations are often the subject of dramatic travelers’ tales. Westerners, for example, might note with surprise and then find unforgettable the Arab custom of pouring tea into a glass until it overflows into the saucer beneath it. This is a sign in Arab cultures of magnanimity, but foreigners can misinterpret it as sloppy and incompetent behavior. On the continent of Europe, propriety enjoins diners to sit with both hands in full view of the company; most correctly, unused hands should rest on the table’s edge, being visible only from the wrists. The Anglo-Saxon custom of permitting guests to sit with one hand hidden seems, to Continentals, at best a sad sign of naivete. Since mealtime etiquette is drummed into people so early and so thoroughly, its obedient practitioners rarely find it a matter for comment; they take it for granted. It is outsiders usually who report on the idiosyncrasies of a society’s manners at meals [7].

      1. Table talk

All human societies take advantage of the fact that meals are physically necessary, normally frequent, and often eaten with others. They turn dinnertimes into opportunities to express and to practice “culture.” Because talking is the primary mode of human communication, mealtimes commonly provide occasions for conversation. Every culture has its own ideas about the management of verbal interaction or of silence at meals.

When to Talk. Most of the time human beings who are sharing a meal prefer to eat without saying much. They simply concentrate on what they are doing, appreciating and enjoying their food. When talking takes place, it is often socially regulated, its timing clarified by rules. In some societies talk is completed before dinner. The meal then serves as a contented celebration of togetherness and agreement, after the discussions that have preceded it (Ortner, 1978; Fitzgerald, 1941). In others the eating comes first, and only when hunger is satisfied should talk break out (Chao, 1956). Formal meals might require silence, conversation being reserved for intimacy among family and friends (Toffin, 1977, ch. 4). In modern Europe and North America the opposite is the case. On formal occasions or when invited out, people should talk; it is rude not to. For this very reason eating together in “companionable” silence can be a sign of great intimacy. On the other hand, everybody eating without talking might be the expression of an oppressive tension. The Japanese begin a banquet in silence but warm up as time goes on. Barriers fall, and discourse increases accordingly (Befu, 1974). Sometimes it is thought proper that only elders and important people should speak (Okere, 1983). Although it is commonly accepted that mealtimes are excellent opportunities for small children to learn to talk, in many places and times older children have been forbidden to speak during meals taken with adults. In the modern West, middle-class children are likely to be encouraged to talk during meals. Such family meals have even been described as “class[es] in oral expression” (Bossard and Boll, 1966, p. 141). Until the early twentieth century in the United States and until the late twentieth century in Britain, it was thought proper at formal upper-class meals to send the women away from the dining room table into the drawing room, originally called a “withdrawing” room, owing to this practice. They took tea and engaged in conversation, leaving the men behind to move together around the table to drink port and discuss politics and other “male” subjects. (The men had been separated during the meal owing to “promiscuous” seating, men and women alternating around the table.) The host decided when the segregation should cease and then shepherded the men to “join the ladies” again (Post, 1922, pp. 223–224). Often entertainment is laid on, and then of course talking is minimal. Watching television during meals is a modern instance of an ancient tradition that includes entertainers dancing and juggling during pauses between courses (as in the medieval and Renaissance entremets), someone reading aloud as monks eat silently in the refectory, musicians performing, and even the host dancing, singing, or playing a musical instrument for his or her guests.

Rules of Behavior. Modern Western societies make talking an important component of a formal meal and of many other eating events as well. (These very societies have rigid requirements about eating silently, with mouths shut. The necessity of nevertheless talking constitutes the kind of complication that is typical of manners in general.) Where people talk, everybody should do so. Not talking is not joining in, where conviviality is the aim. The silence of one individual in these cultures and in others can be interpreted as hostility, incompetence, or even greed, a plot to take advantage of the others’ conversation in order to eat more than anybody else. It is forbidden at a dining room table to reach past people, and especially across their plates, for what one might need. It is therefore necessary to ask and then to thank the neighbor who obliges. Before helping himself or herself to more food, the polite diner first asks others whether they want some more. Such simple exchanges, made mandatory by table manners, create a ready-made, basic fabric of verbal interaction with others. Since all have the duty, all should also have the opportunity to talk. Politeness therefore commonly demands, to varying degrees in different cultures, no drowning out of others’ words by shouting and no interrupting. All the manners governing conversation may apply even more strictly than is usual. Where the guests are seated around a table, on view to all those present, it is bad manners to talk, whisper, and laugh with one companion to the exclusion and possible covert ridicule of others. A guest should not be singled out and so closely questioned that he or she has no time to eat the food. It is rude, the etiquette books repeatedly remind their readers, to upset people with descriptions of what might disgust them or shock them (the last thing people want while eating is to be perturbed or “put off their food”). Dinnertime conversationalists are often advised against controversial or overly important subjects like politics or religion. Talking shop is frowned upon and also long-winded technical explanations nobody wants to hear. There should be no holding forth so that only one person is heard from. The host in particular is enjoined not to praise the culinary excellence of the meal or other. Let Noise of lewd Disputes be quite forborn, No Maudlin Lovers here in Corners Mourn, But all be Brisk, and Talk, but not too much. On Sacred things, Let none presume to touch, Nor Profane Scripture, or sawcily wrong Affairs of State with an Irreverent Tongue. Let Mirth be Innocent, and each man see That all his Jests without Reflection be. (The Rules and Orders of the Coffee House, 1674) The turning of the table is accomplished by the hostess, who merely turns from the gentleman (on her left probably) with whom she has been talking through the soup and the fish course, to the one on her right. As she turns, the lady to whom the “right” gentleman has been talking, turns to the gentleman further on, and in a moment everyone at table is talking to a new neighbor. [To refuse to change partners is to cause the whole table to be blocked,] leaving one lady and one gentleman on either side of the block, staring alone at their plates. At this point the hostess has to come to the rescue by attracting the blocking lady’s attention and saying, “Sally, you cannot talk to Professor Bugge any longer! Mr. Smith has been trying his best to attract your attention.” (Emily Post, 1922, p. 221) I knew a man who had a story about a Gun, which he thought a good one and that he told it very well; he tryed all means in the world to turn the conversation upon Guns—but if he failed in his attempt, he started in his chair, and said he heard a Gun fired, but when the company assured him that they heard no such thing, he answered, perhaps then I am mistaken, but however, since we are talking of Guns,—and then told his story, to the great indignation of the company. (Lord Chesterfield, Letter to his Godson, no. 141) erwise to put himself or herself forward. He or she should concentrate instead on encouraging the guests to shine.

      1. Noise

Different attitudes toward food are expressed by two types of mealtime manners as they relate to sound. For some groups the polite response to a meal is gratitude to the cook or the host for providing it and pleasure, which should be clearly dramatized. People are expected to express their delight verbally or to provide physical signs of it, like slurping their noodles and sighing with satisfaction. Contentedly burping after the meal may show a kindly abandon to the generosity of the host, who might be hurt if guests remain cool, detached, and apparently either unsatisfied or unimpressed by what has been offered them. In other cultures people feel they should not be unduly interested in the food; they should at least appear to revel mainly in the company of the other people present. They refrain from exclaiming about the food, although a polite murmur of appreciation might be permitted. They must not look too enthusiastic for fear of seeming greedy. People are expected instead to concentrate on the conversation. In some cultures talking during meals may be strictly undesirable. In others only certain people present are allowed to talk, or it may be deemed essential that everybody contribute to the conversation. The etiquette of eating from a common spread versus that of eating previously apportioned food interlocks with these preferences for either talking or keeping silent [13].The system in which each person eats from a separate plate divides the companions, and talk provides the needed interchange among them. People who take their food from a central dish or set of dishes necessarily interact in the process, so they concentrate on eating with fairness and consideration and tend to talk little. People who use chopsticks eat quickly because cut-up food, sizzling hot, could get cold if too much time is taken in chatting rather than eating. Talking for these last two groups tends to be done before the meal or afterward.

Conclusion on part one

Food choices, eating habits, and the preparation of certain foods often reveal distinctions of age, sex, status, culture, and even occupation. Eating together is an important social act, being a recognition of fellowship and mutual social obligation, and it is often accompanied by customs or rituals which are specific to the cultural group concerned, or even to a particular class or subgroup within the larger social group. People who eat very different foods, or similar foods in different ways, are often thought to be different, and eating habits are often closely linked to the types of food consumed.

II. Finno-Ugric cuisine: major food, etiquette and table talk through globalization influences

Finno-Ugric cuisine as a part of Russian culture, the traditional economy of the Komi was closely connected with habitat conditions. In the north meat and fish, collecting products were the main source of food, in the south of the Komi cereals and products of cattle breeding were the cornerstone of food.

Principles and methods of this culinary culture were associated with the conditions of special services, religion, customs of the people engaged in fishing and hunting. The abundance of fish and game, the diversity of their species composition is reflected in the features of the cooking of the Finno-Ugric peoples.

In order to identify any changes in the traditional cuisine of Komi and to emphasize the most striking features of this cuisine, we carried out the survey. The survey consisted of 13 open and closed questions. We have interviewed 30 people. On the basis of the collected data was generated summary table.



Questions

The number of inhabitants of the village

(% of total population)



Comment

15-25 age

30-50 age

50 and more age

11

О чём Вы разговариваете с членами семьи во время еды?:

А. о работе, учёбе;

Б. о личных проблемах (ссоры, проблемы, встречи);

В. о еде, охоте и рыбалке;

Г. Не разговариваете, едите молча;

Д. свой вариант


А -10%

Б-10%

В-40%

Г- 40%

Б-20%

В-40%

Г- 40%

В-40%

Г- 40%

Д- 20% о проблемах села и страны

Женщины молчат -80%, говорят одни мужчины.

22

Какие темы запрещены за столом в присутствии гостей?:

А. доходы семьи, денежные проблемы;

Б. проблемы села и на работе;

В. болезни;

Г. семейные проблемы

Д. свой вариант.


А-90%

Г-10%


А-70%

Б-10%

В-10%

Г-10%


А-100%





33

Если вам предложат то, что вы не едите, Вы:

А. откажитесь;

Б. сделаете вид, что вам нравится;

В. случайно уроните тарелку;

Г. отдадите соседу.

Д спросите рецепт.


А-80%

30% - Всё ем

Д- 50%

50%- Всё ем

Д-70%




44

Сколько блюд у вас за ужином?:

А. 2-3; Б. 3-4; В. больше 4.


А-100%

Б-100%

Б-100%

Всё зависит от бюджета семьи-40%


55

Основу рациона составляет:

А. мясо:

-оленина

-говядина

-дичь

-куры или окорочка из магазина

Б. рыба

- щука

-тундровая (сиги)

-речная (плотва, окунь)

-семга

В. картофель

Г. каши

Д. пироги и печеный хлеб

Е. свежая рыба и мясо ( сырое, строганина.)

Ж. свой вариант


А-говядина

50%

Б- разная 100%

Ж- жареный картофель – 20%

А – оленина

50%

Б- Сиги -30%

Щука-50%

Семга- 20%

Д- рыбники ( рыбные пироги) -100%

Е- строганина -40%

А - оленина

100%

Б- Сиги -40%

Щука-30%

Налим- 30%

Д- рыбники ( рыбные пироги) -100%

Е- строганина -30%

Оленина-100%

Щука-100%

66

Пироги с какой начинкой вы обычно предпочитаете?

А. ягоды:

1. черника

2. клюква

3. брусника

Б. Мясо:

-оленина

-говядина

-куры или окорочка из магазина

В. Рыба

- щука

-тундровая (сиги)

-семга

Г. фруктовое или яблочное повидло

Д. свой вариант


А- брусника-100%

Б- оленина- 40%

В.Семга- 100%

Г.Варенье -100%

А- черника-30%, брусника – 40%, морошка- 30%.

Б- оленина- 40%

В.Семга- 100%

Г.Варенье -100%

А- черника-50%, брусника – 40%, морошка- 10%.

Б- оленина- 40%

В.Семга- 100%

Г.Сухие ягоды -100%

Брусника-100%

Семга-100%

78

Допустимо ли для вас есть руками?

А. да

Б. нет

В. если есть возможность, да


Б -100%

В -50%

В – 70%

В зависимости от события или присутствия гостей.

89

Можете ли вы приготовить еду в не дома (на природе)?

А. да Б. нет В. всегда


А-100%

А-100%

А-100%




110

Приемлемо ли для вас съесть сырую рыбу или мясо?:

А. да, это вкусно

Б. нет, ни когда

В. если бы вынудили обстоятельства, то да


А-100%

А-100%

А-100%

Традиции семьи

111

Традиционные блюда коми-кухни на вашем столе:

А. коми-суп

В. пирог с рыбой печёрского посола

Г. Строганина из рыбы сиговых пород или оленина

Д. Кровяная колбаса

Е. Ватрушки с ягодами или картофелем

Ж. Мочёная брусника или морошка

З. Вяленая рыба или оленина

И. свой вариант


А, Е, Ж

Всё -100%

А, В, Ж,З

Печёрский посол рыбы ( с запахом) -100%

112

В вашей семье соблюдается традиционные рецепты коми кухни :

А. да Б. нет В. что это

А-100%

А-100%

А-100%




113

Назовите основные блюда коми кухни в Вашей семье:

- коми-суп, коми-нянь, разные рыбники, соленая рыба печёрского посола (с запахом), строганина из рыб сиговых пород или оленины, кровяная колбаса или кровяные лепешки, коми чёрные лепешки без дрожжей, разные виды ватрушек (с картофелем, брусникой, черникой, морошкой), мочёная брусника или морошка, валяная рыба или валеная оленина.

коми чёрные лепешки без дрожжей, разные виды ватрушек (с картофелем, брусникой, черникой, морошкой), мочёная брусника или морошка

коми-суп, коми-нянь, разные рыбники, соленая рыба печёрского посола (с запахом), строганина из рыб сиговых пород или оленины, кровяная колбаса или кровяные лепешки, коми чёрные лепешки без дрожжей

коми-суп, коми-нянь, разные рыбники, соленая рыба печёрского посола (с запахом), строганина из рыб сиговых пород или оленины, кровяная колбаса или кровяные лепешки, коми чёрные лепешки без дрожжей




Based on the data obtained, it is possible to notice a significant difference in the responses between the age groups 50 years and older age category 15-25 years.

Moreover, these data helped to analyze traditional diets and customs of the Komi cuisine.

We would like to consider issues that demonstrated the clear differences.

The first question “О чём Вы разговариваете с членами семьи во время еды?”, showed that young people aged 15-25 years talking about food, hunting and fishing, in contrast to adults aged 50 and over who prefer to discuss personal issues. It is noteworthy that 80% of women do not talk at the table, conversation support adult men of the family.

Another interesting question is: “Основу рациона составляет”

This diagram shows that the younger generation (15-25 years old) prefers fish, this is logical, as most of their free time is spent on fishing. Age group 50 and over instead prefers meat (venison) and "stroganina", as well as berries (cloudberry, lingonberry), which is the most traditional food.

Traditionally reindeer breeders eat a venison. In the city of Vorkuta there is a plant on processing of a venison. The venison can be considered a dietary and medical product which can be recommended at avitaminosis and various metabolic disorders.

At the Komi fishery had long traditions. The Komi living on the rivers the main products food had a fish. Fish of valuable breeds intended generally for the market. Commodity fishery at northern Komi was of especially great importance. In the Pechora district of the Arkhangelsk province at the beginning of the XX century the annual income from sale of fish exceeded the income from hunting twice.

The main part in food the Komi is a hunting. Men got hazel grouses, black grouses, wood-grouses, partridges; from the natatorial: duck, goose; wild hoofed animals (elk and deer); fur animals: hare, bear [25]. The peoples of the Finno-Ugric group of mushrooms - an essential element of the national diet. Auxiliary, but essential value in food of the Komi had collecting (cowberry, a cranberry, blueberry, bilberry, cloudberries, wild strawberry, raspberry, currant, a mountain ash, a bird cherry). Everywhere in a large number reserved birch sap (zarav) in the spring. At all Komi (except northern Komi reindeer breeders) preparation was extended to winter of mushrooms (a zasalivaniye and drying).

The third question, which is interesting for us is: “Назовите основные блюда коми кухни в Вашей семье”.

According to this diagram, the younger generation of 15-25 years prefer potatoes and berries, instead of "blood sausage", "sliced" and raw liver.

Traditional dishes in people from 30 to 50 years of the Komi-soup, fish cakes, pickled berries.

People of advanced age (50 and over) follow to traditional recipes, such as, “коми-нянь, строганина, кровяная колбаса, сырая печень, солёные грибы и мочёные ягоды.”

All of these dates can be logically explained, in accordance of some geographical and ethnic features.

Komi love fish - boiled, salty, fried. During a lunch often served fish soup (yukv) or “Рыбник” (черинянь) which baked with krasnoglazky, a pike, a burbot, a grayling, a whitefish, a salmon. Fish does an organism to be stronger. The fish was the main food raw material. But the fish dishes are varied not only the degree of cooking of a fish that ate it raw, frozen, dried, sour (pickled), salted or boiled, but also the fact that different types of fish were prepared in different ways, different methods. It is very popular with the Komi up to the present fresh-salted fish with specific taste. For one fishing it was impossible to catch a lot of fish therefore made sour in a special brine. Thus, fish was stored more long. Often reserved for themselves also dried and dried fish.

The leading place in a diet of all Komi was taken by pastries. Grain products baked from rye and barley flour, only in prosperous farms - from wheat. A brand of the Komi of pastries, certainly, are shang which unlike classical representation could be not only round, but also square. Shang baked with potato, grain, berries.

Besides tea, at the Komi such drinks as broth of flowers and berries of a dogrose, cowberry leaf, grain kvass (ырöш), birch sap (zarav) were widespread. The malt mash (chuzhv) was drunk with the berries added to it — dried and fresh bilberry, cloudberries, a cranberry, cowberry, a dried bird cherry. Oat kvass was prepared with dried raspberry. Berries added instead of sugar [26].

Surprising is common to all of the Finno-Ugric peoples, characteristic only for them, and rare in Europe Culinary compositional device, formed, apparently in an era when all the nations of this group were still undivided and ethnically, and geographically.

Examples of recipes and methods of cooking, Komi-Ugric dishes:

  1. Azyashyd (soup) Азъяшыд (суп)

Barley cereals - 1-2 tbsp. spoon chopped prepared parsnip - 1 tbsp. spoon chopped fresh herbs (nettle, quinoa) - 1 cup of meat - 0.5 kg, onions - 2-3 pieces.

  1. Yola Kukan yai (veal in milk) Йола кукань яй

Veal cut into pieces weighing 30-40 grams, sprinkle with salt and put in a unit dose (clay) pot, pour the milk and cook over low heat until tender. Serve in the same pot.V eal 200, 100 milk and salt.

  1. Kartupelya nannies (shangi with potatoes)

Картупеля нянь

For the dough: flour 120 Sugar 3 1 yeast, margarine 5, water 50 and salt; Potatoes 150, 20 milk, sour cream 20, egg 1/2 pieces, butter 10.

  1. Komi soup

Beef brisket cut into pieces of 40-50 g, pour cold water and cook for 30-40 minutes. Then put millet, cut thin slices of beets, carrots, potatoes, and before the end of cooking - yogurt and spices (laurel, black pepper), salt. Serves the same dish (usually a clay pot). When serving sprinkle with chopped onions and seasoned sour cream.

Beef 100, 100 potatoes, beet 75, 15 carrots, onion 15, 15 millet, yogurt or kefir 70, 10 cream, ground black pepper, laurel, salt.

  1. Morkov Cushman (grated radish and carrot)

Моркова кушман (редька тертая с морковью)

Radish and carrots washed, peeled, crushed to a coarse grater, add salt. Add the sugar and vinegar, seasoned sour cream and mix thoroughly.

Radish 70, 60 carrots, sour cream 20, 2 vinegar, sugar 2, salt. [24]

Talking about etiquette in Kombi-Ugric group, we can give the dates of our survey, that can to explain some interesting facts. There were two questions: “Допустимо ли для вас есть руками?” and “Можете ли вы приготовить еду в не дома (на природе)?” and 100% of respondents said “Yes”. It means that people completely preserved the way of life, which was a priority for the herders and nomads. Not only the older generation allows using the hands during food and can cook in the natural environment, but also the adolescents retained the same skills.

Jim Nesvold, the geographer and traveler, described Finno-Ugric cuisine so: “Handmade food.

Finno-Ugric food is made at home, by hand and heart. Of course this practice is common in rural settings and not in cities. City people eat mostly industrial food. But... there is a growing interest for cooking real food among urban Finno-Ugrians as well.

Wild.

Wild Food that is foraged from nature has highly important role in Finno-Ugric cuisine. Mushrooms and berries, different herbs and edible plants, fish from lake or river or sea and meat of wild animals. All Finno-Ugric peoples enjoy the privilege to be a gatherer-hunter-fisherman.

Seasonal.

Finno-Ugric cuisine is very much connected to the cycle of the seasons. Important part of FU cuisine is smoking, conserving, salting, drying of various food, as fresh foodstuffs are available for a short period only.

Simple food.

Simple cooking styles and recipes of grandmothers rule Finno-Ugric kitchen. Ingredients are usually not measured by grams but by gut feeling and experience.

Nutritious.

Finno-Ugric food have to be nutritious, because people have to get enough energy to survive cold winter weather and in rural settings (often) do a hard physical work.” [20]

We can completely agree with this thoughts about Komi-Ugric people, which emphasize the main characteristic features of Komi cuisine.

At the same time, although in general, completed to the national cuisine of the Finno-Ugric peoples are virtually nonexistent, almost each of them have survived one or two of the most characteristic, the favorite, just traditional, festive or ceremonial meals survivors century. These dishes make up, as it were the core of the national cuisine of the Finno-Ugric peoples.
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